Wednesday, 22 October 2014

More research into Psychology

Freud Perception of Personality - The Conscious mind is our current thinking processes, the Preconscious mind pays attention to the things of which we are aware, but are not paying attention to. We can choose to pay attention to these and bring them into the conscious mind. We can control our awareness to a certain extent, by focusing on one conscious act to include as much of preconscious information as possible. Freud believed that behaviour is driven directly from the subconscious mind and recent research has shown that the subconscious mind is probably even more in charge of our actions than even Freud had realized.

Components of Personality - are an individual’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors are the result of the interaction of the id, the superego, and the ego. The Id contains our primitive drives and operates largely according to the pleasure principle, it has no real perception of reality and seeks to satisfy its needs. It has 2 major instincts: Eros: the life instinct that motivates people to focus on pleasure-seeking tendencies. Thanatos: the death instinct that motivates people to use aggressive urges to destroy. The Ego is aware of reality and understands that behaviors have consequences. The Ego has to balance the demands of the Id and Super ego with the constraints of reality. 
Super ego contains our values and social morals, and is a counterbalance to the Id. So individuals can either appeal to the basic urges of the Id or the higher morals of the Super ego. Then encourage the Ego to make the 'right choice'.

Freud stated there are three stages within the human growth patterns, and each stage can cause different impacts,the oral stage is the first, the second is the anal stage, and the final stage is the phallic stage. A balance has to be maintained within these stages, and through the changing of stages, or negative behavior can be instilled within a person.

Jungian Psychology - Carl Jung (1875-1961) had the idea of the collective conscious, that all people have the same basic patterns of behaviour. He claimed our minds and our bodies have adapted through the centuries. Jung grouped people into two general attitude groups, the introverts and the extroverts. Introverts are concerned with themselves and extroverts are concerned with everything around them. He believed all people contain aspects of both of these groups, but one aspect is more dominant. The dominant aspect is the basis for a person's personality; the same types of attitudes will be similar when it comes to how they think and act. He believed we have several archetypes of personality, he observed that there are differing but repetitive patterns of thought and actions, he devised main archetypes, these types are all within use he had four main forms.
The Shadow, is the archetype that reflects the deeper elements of our psyche, it does not like to follow rules and because of this trait may venture into new places and into trouble. The Anima and Animus - the Anima is the female and the Animus is the male aspect. The Anima/Animus represents our true self, it is our soul, our creative source. Jung thought that men have a fundamental animus and women as anima, however they may have each other, Jung did believe that women have a more variable animus made of several parts. Jung theorised that the development of the anima/animus  as an infant projection onto their mother and then as an adult projecting onto partners until a lasting relationship can be sustained. The combination of the anima/animus represents wholeness and completion, this completeness brings power and is associated with religious combinations such as the Holy Trinity - Father, Son and Holy Ghost.                         
The Self, according to Jung is what connects and joins both the conscious and unconsciousness, 
Jung's archetypes are elements that we as individual's recognise them in the idea of an image and on a emotional level, and has a profound effect on us and implies a deep and primative origin, therefore they are signifiers of aspects that are beyond our absolute understanding.

Carl Rogers was another influential person on human personalities, and his views were based upon humanistic theories. He believed that human personalities were based on experiences that they had during their life. Rogers felt that all people were born with set behaviours and that people lived life in an effort to achieve the highest acceptance of these qualities. Once a person reached their fullest potential, then they were accepted as a fully functioning person. He felt that people were more likely to become fully functioning if they were raised in an unconditional positive environment, rather than in a conditional environment. He believed that children raised in a home were they were accepted, and praised, are more likely to live a long, healthy life as a fully functioning human.

Freud, Jung and Rogers were pioneers when it came to human personalities and what affected them. Each theorist had their own views, but they all paved the way for personality studies that are still used today. The combination of theories and ideas that these three men implemented have made human personality more understandable, and it allows people to change in order to increase there positive personalities, while allowing any negative traits to be overcome.

http://changingminds.org/explanations/personality/freud_personality.htm 

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/in-therapy/201206/clients-guide-transference

http://changingminds.org/disciplines/psychoanalysis/concepts/transference.htm

http://voices.yahoo.com/three-human-personality-pioneers-freud-jung-rogers-2963171.html?cat=72




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